Other adult high risk groups

• People who follow a vegetarian or vegan diet1
• Obese patients 2,3
• Patients with malabsorption, short bowel, or cholestatic liver disease 4
• Patients taking some medications, such as anticonvulsants, rifampicin, cholestyramine, highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) or glucocorticoids 4
• Patients requiring antiresorptive treatments such as zoledronate or denosumab 5


1. Vitamin D deficiency including osteomalacia and rickets. Available at:
2. Hyppönen E & Power C. Hypovitaminosis D in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007; 85(3): 860-8.
3. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. Update on vitamin D: position statement by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition. London: The Stationery Office, 2007. Available at: 
4. Pearce S & Cheetham T. Diagnosis and management of vitamin D deficiency. BMJ. 2010; 340:b5664.
5. National Osteoporosis Society. Vitamin D and bone health: A practical clinical guideline for patient management. April 2013.